英语介词By 与 through 的区别:
”相当于by means of 如：
All work had to be done by hand 所有的工作都是手工进行的。
He makes a living by teaching 他以教书为生。
It happened through no fault of mine.这件事的发生, 并非由于我的任何过错。
He saluted her by raising his hat.他举起帽子向她致意。
She earned money by writing.她靠写作挣钱。
根据;按照to play by the rules按规则比赛
相差His horse won by a nose.他的马以一鼻之差取胜。
How did you send the letter, by airmail or by ordinary mail?
He came by train, but his wife came by bus. 他是乘火车来的，可是他老婆是坐公共汽车来的。
Did you come by train? =Did you come in his car / on my bike?
by accident / by chance / by diligence / by effort / by force / by heart / by luck / by mistake / by hard work.
We lost the match by one goal 我们仅以一球之差输了比赛。
pay sb by the hour /day/week
Sell sth by the pound /meter/ dozen
sell sth by weight/length
As a rule，domestic servants doing odd jobs are paid by the hour 通常，家政服务是按照小时计酬的。
They marched by night.他们夜里进军。